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The navel (clinically known as the umbilicus, colloquially known as the belly button or tummy button) is a scar on the abdomen at the attachment site of the umbilical cord. All placental mammals have a navel, and it is quite conspicuous in humans.Other animals' navels tend to be smoother and flatter, often nothing more than a thin line, and are often obscured by fur.The umbilicus is a prominent mark on the abdomen, with its position being relatively consistent amongst humans. The skin around the waist at the level of the umbilicus is supplied by the tenth thoracic spinal nerve (T10 dermatome). The umbilicus itself typically lies at a vertical level corresponding to the junction between the L3 and L4 vertebrae, with a normal variation among people between the L3 and L5 vertebrae.The umbilicus forms a visible depression on the skin of the abdomen, and the underlying abdominal muscle layers also present a concavity; thinness at this point contributes to a relative structural weakness, making it susceptible to hernia. During pregnancy, the uterus presses the navel of the pregnant woman outward; it usually retracts again after birth.
The umbilicus is used to visually separate the abdomen into quadrants. The navel is the center of the circle enclosing the spread-eagle figure in Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man drawing. The navel is rarely the focus in contemporary art and literature.
Aki Sinkkonen at the University of Helsinki in Finland thinks that the navel may be an indicator of mating potential in fertile women. In his article in the The FASEB Journal, he proposes that the umbilicus, together with the surrounding skin area, is an honest signal of individual vigor. He suggests that the symmetry, shape, and position of umbilicus can be used to estimate the reproductive potential of fertile females, including risks of certain genetically and maternally inherited fetal anomalies.In humans, the navel scar can appear as a depression (often referred to colloquially as an innie) or as a protrusion (outie). About 90% of humans have innies. The occurrence of an outie navel is caused by the extra skin left from the umbilical cord or from umbilical hernias, though the latter does not always cause an outie to develop. Frequently separated into just those two categories, navels vary quite widely among people in terms of size, shape, depth, length, and overall appearance. As navels are scars, and not defined by genetics, they can serve as a way of distinguishing between identical twins in the absence of other identifiable marks.Some people do not have a navel as a result of surgery needed to correct abdominal problems at birth such as umbilical hernia or gastroschisis, a condition where the stomach and intestines poke through a hole in the abdominal wall. Only a smooth indentation is found in the place of the navel.And while it is standard practice to clamp, cut, then seal a newborn's umbilical cord to prevent infection, in lotus births—or umbilical non-severance births—the cord and placenta are left to drop off naturally.Adults may lose their navels during stomach surgeries or skin grafts, while some adults opt to have their navels surgically enhanced via umbilicoplasty.The navel is one of the many erogenous zones that has heightened sensitivity. The navel and the region below when touched by the finger or the tip of the tongue result in the production of erotic sensations. This is because the navel and the genitals have a common tissue origin, and in some people this connection still exists[dubious – discuss] so that stimulation of the navel will elicit a distinct tickle in the genitals. A study done by Charles Puckett of the University of Missouri found that vertically oriented navels with a T-shape were considered the most attractive. In the Song of Solomon, a book in the Hebrew Bible, there are allusions to exotic things in nature, with frequent interweaving of nature with erotic imagery. In Solomon's lavish praise of his love—the country girl, Sulaimi—the navel is mentioned as follows: "thy navel is like a round goblet, which wanteth not liquor" (7:2).[Bacteria
A team of scientists have discovered 1,400 strains of bacteria in human umbilical dips. North Carolina State University's Belly Button Biodiversity study found 662 unrecognised strains that could be unique new species.St Thomas Aquinas considered the navel as the "bodily metaphor for spiritual things".Alternative medicine Manipura chakra that represents the navel Indian medicine
In Indian traditional medicine, the Cyperus rotundus tuber is made into a paste and applied around the navel to relieve pain caused by roundworms. Pomegranate plant juice and paste is used to treat snake bites; the juice is dropped into the nostrils, ears, and navel.Applying a little bit of ghee on cotton and keeping it on the navel overnight is considered a remedy for dry lips.Castor oil is applied to the navel of infants as a remedy for stomach aches.The Gonds, a tribe from central India, apply Gloriosa superba rhizome extract over the navel and vagina to cause labour pain and perform normal delivery.
According to Ayurveda, the navel is an important site in the human body. Nearly 72,000 subtle nerves or nadis converge in this area.By the principles of Ayurveda and yoga, the human body is made up of six chakras, with the Manipura chakra located at the spine directly behind either the navel or the solar plexus, depending on the system, while its kshetram, or superficial activation point, is located directly on the navel and represents the element fire. Vayu, which is one of the three doshas specified in Ayurveda, is divided into five sub categories. Of these, Samāna Vayu, situated in the navel region, is believed to aid in digestion and give physical strength to the body.
According to Ayurvedic principles, navel displacement is a condition in which the navel center shifts. This might create digestive disorders. Proper practice of yoga is considered to be a remedy to realigning the navel.